Various Types Of Drilling Machine And Their Applications

Oil exploration is a very complex area as there is a lot of equipment and manpower involved in it. Trained personnel having IADC Rigpass training or equivalent qualification are eligible to work in this sector as it involves working with many types of sophisticated machines. Moreover, their Safe Operating Procedure (SOP), emergency measures, and personnel handling are also taught to them. 

Oil drilling machine basically consists of the oil drilling rig that is a structure that houses all components like the pipe, cables, derrick, and the drill bits that help in extracting petroleum from Earth’s surface. The rigs can either be land-based or offshore in the ocean and there are different types of rigs that are in practice which are handled by holders. We take a look at them to understand the oil drilling process.

  • Jackups – It is the most common type of movable offshore drilling in which the main deck area has open truss legs for ample base support. Jackups can help in drilling oil for up to almost 350 feet deep into the Earth’s surface. Jackups may have two types of drilling machines. One, the cantilevered Jackup that is mostly used, has its drilling derrick fixed on a solid arm that extends out from the main deck. They can facilitate drilling irrespective of the platform. 
  • The other, keyway Jackup or the slot-type consists of a hole in the deck and the derrick is kept over it. The keyway Jackup can be positioned over other small structures and can be drilled down by people with IADC training.   
  • Floaters – They can be suitable for newer oil wells and also when the sea is in bad weather. These are semi-submersible drilling entities that float on large pontoons or empty columns. When people with IADC certification fill them with water the rig can be suitably submerged and go to the needed depth for exploring oil.   
  • Fixed Platforms – These are very large structures and connected to the ocean floor and can be made up of cement or steel. A complete crew of IADC training holders with all equipment can easily stay on top of these platforms. They can drill up to a depth of 1,700 feet and possess directional drilling capabilities. Therefore, they can also be connected to various wells that fall within a radius of five miles. 
  • Complaint Tower – It is yet another offshore drilling rig that can be handled by IADC rig pass training holders. It has a slender, flexible tower that is built on a firm cement foundation. Therefore, it can be a very robust unit that can drill from a depth of 1,500 to 3,000 feet. One of the advantages of this type of rig is that it supports both drillings as well as the production of oil.

Apart from all the drilling rig machines that have been listed here, Drillship is also a type of rig that can be found in large tankers and can be especially suited for drilling in deep water for experimental purposes. These are the main types of drilling rig machines that are used by most renowned companies in this sector.